Homosexuality in Hindu Mythology: An Introduction

What is Homosexuality?

Homosexuality refers to the romantic, sexual, or emotional attraction between individuals of the same sex.

A person who experiences such attractions is often known as gay (if male) or lesbian (if female).

Homosexuality is one of the many variations of human sexuality, and it exists across different cultures and throughout history.

Hindu mythology, a vast treasure trove of stories, deities, and legends, holds a diverse range of narratives that encompass love, relationships, and the celebration of human diversity.

While current discussions around LGBTQ+ rights and acceptance have gained prominence, ancient Hindu texts reveal a rich history of homosexuality, with tales that depict same-sex love, acceptance, and the embrace of diverse identities.


Ancient Stories of Homosexuality in Hindu Mythology

The Divine Union of Ardhanarishvara

Ardhanarishvara, the half-male and half-female form of Lord Shiva, epitomizes the integration of masculine and feminine energies. This embodiment of androgyny signifies the unity and acceptance of all genders and sexual orientations, transcending societal norms and emphasizing the divine essence within each individual.

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Krishna and Arjuna: A Sacred Bond

Many people interpret the bond between Lord Krishna and Arjuna in the epic Mahabharata as a deep, loving relationship that transcends conventional notions of gender.

They see their connection as a spiritual union where emotions and devotion take precedence, irrespective of societal expectations.

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Shikhandi’s Transformation and Triumph

Shikhandi, born as a female but later identified as male, plays a crucial role in the Mahabharata. Blessed by a divine boon, Shikhandi becomes instrumental in the downfall of the antagonist, Bhishma.

This tale highlights the fluidity of gender identities and emphasizes that love and bravery are not restricted to conventional gender roles.


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Mohini and Shiva: A Divine Union

In one of the captivating tales from the Puranas, Lord Vishnu takes the form of Mohini, a beautiful enchantress, to seduce the demons and restore balance to the universe.

In this narrative, Shiva becomes so enamored by Mohini’s allure that they engage in a union, demonstrating the acceptance of diverse forms of attraction and the fluidity of gender boundaries.


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The Story of Ila: Embracing Dual Identities

The tale of Ila explores the concept of fluid sexuality and the acceptance of diverse identities. Ila transforms male to female and vice versa due to a divine curse.

This story not only challenges societal norms but also celebrates the existence of individuals who defy traditional gender categorizations.




It’s important to note that Hindu mythology is a product of its time and reflects the cultural and social norms prevalent during its origin.

Interpretations of these myths can vary, and different individuals may have differing perspectives on how these stories relate to homosexuality or other aspects of human sexuality.

It is also worth mentioning that Hinduism, as a religion, encompasses a wide range of beliefs and practices, and attitudes towards homosexuality can differ among individuals and various sects.

Contemporary perspectives within Hinduism regarding homosexuality are diverse, and many Hindu communities have their interpretations and attitudes toward sexual orientation.

Ultimately, discussions around homosexuality in Hindu mythology can be subjective and open to personal interpretations.

It’s essential to approach the topic with sensitivity and respect for the diversity of viewpoints within the Hindu community.


Hinduism Says Homosexuality is not a Sin (Section 377)

Everybody contains the divine, who observes, directs, encourages, and takes pleasure in all that the body goes through. — Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 13, Verse 22

Hindu mythological characters show gender flexibility and queer orientations even in the gods and goddesses.

Many tales about gods becoming goddesses and vice versa appeared at this time.

Some gods exhibit all three genders, while others are third-gendered.

In some cases, deities do not change their gender; they simply cross-dress.

Then there are female gods with male characteristics and male characteristics with female gods. Lord Krishna refers to a substance (Prakriti) and the mind (Purusha) as his two wombs (yoni) in the Bhagavad Gita.

In some tales, Krishna is depicted as plaiting his hair, dyeing his palms red, donning a nose ring, and gracefully bending his body.

In this form, people refer to Krishna as the best man (purushottama) and the whole man (purna-purusha). It appears that for the ancients when emphasizing the feminine, masculinity did not diminish.


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Similarly, people still revere Lord Shiva’s feminine manifestation as the milkmaid God or Gopeshwar Mahadev in Mathura, where he takes on the guise of a milkmaid and dances around Krishna in the paradise of cows (gau-loka).



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On the other hand, artists frequently depict Goddesses solely in the presence of other goddesses, riding lions, and engaging in combat while holding a trident—which some could consider male aspects.

Hinduism’s female deities are independent and view their male counterparts as sexual objects or as a source of procreation.

The Goddess has dual roles of mother and daughter. She is either enshrined alone, with a female partner, or with two male consorts in goddess temples.


Exploring the Intersection: Homosexuality and Astrology

In traditional astrology, which is primarily based on heteronormative frameworks, there is a limited direct discussion about homosexuality. The majority of astrological interpretations are focused on heterosexual relationships and compatibility.

However, it’s worth mentioning that astrology has evolved and diversified over time, and some astrologers aim to provide inclusive interpretations that cater to diverse sexual orientations and gender identities.

Some modern astrologers might consider factors such as the placement of Venus (associated with love and relationships) and Uranus (associated with individuality and unconventionality) in a person’s birth chart when discussing topics related to sexual orientation.

However, these interpretations can vary widely, and there is no consensus or universally accepted astrological explanation for homosexuality.


The Mythical Symbolism of Homosexuality: Unveiling Hidden Meanings

Divine Androgyny: Exploring the Symbolic Unity of Masculine and Feminine Energies

Nurturing Love: Homosexuality as a Symbol of Compassion and Care in Hindu Mythology

Breaking Binary Boundaries: Homosexuality and the Fluidity of Gender in Sacred Tales

Queer Divinities: Interpreting Homosexual Symbolism in Hindu Mythological Figures

The Alchemy of Desire: Unveiling the Transformative Power of Homosexuality in Myths

Union of Souls: Same-Sex Relationships as Metaphors for Spiritual Wholeness

Love Beyond Labels: Homosexuality as a Path to Transcendence in Hindu Mythology

The Dance of Shakti and Shiva: Homosexuality as a Symbol of Balance and Harmony

Rites of Passion: Homosexual Encounters as Sacred Rituals in Hindu Mythology

The Quest for Wholeness: Homosexuality as a Symbolic Journey in Ancient Myths


Same-sex sexual interactions

Gods can also engage in homosexual or bisexual conduct, although these relationships are typically regarded as simply ritualistic or serving motives other than sexual gratification.

Birth of Karttikeya

Agni, the deity of fire, riches, and creative energy, engages in same-sex relationships with other deities by receiving their semen. Despite being married to the goddess Svaha, Agni is shown as being part of a same-sex couple with Soma, the deity of the moon.

Similar to how Agni receives sacrifices from Earth to Heaven, Agni plays a receptive role in this relationship by using his lips to accept semen from Soma.

Orthodox Hinduism asserts that Agni and his mouth represent the feminine role in these “mithuna” or ritualized sexual interactions.


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Mitra and Varun

The gods Varuna and Mitra maintain a close relationship and Vedic literature often references them together. These Adityas govern over the universal oceans, with Mitra in charge of its bottom portals and depths and Varuna in charge of its upper areas, rivers, and shorelines.

They ride a shark or crocodile together while wielding tridents, ropes, conch shells, and water jugs, depicting their representation in Sangam literature.

Occasionally, they sit next to one another on a golden chariot pulled by seven swans, as depicted in Sangam literature. Additionally, according to ancient Brahmana scriptures, Varuna and Mitra represent same-sex relationships and the two lunar phases, respectively: “Mitra and Varuna, on the other hand, are the two half-moons: the waxing one is Varuna and the waning one is Mitra.

They meet on the new moon night, and while being together, they delight in a cake offering, as described in Sangam literature.

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Sangam Literature

People born with an intersex condition, as well as Antharlinga hijras and other varieties of hijra, are described as “pi” in Sangam literature.

King Kopperuncholan and Pisuranthaiyar, two figures from the Sangam period, provide another well-known example of same-sex love. Despite never meeting, they developed a deep love and respect for one another, to the point where they passed away simultaneously in different locations.

The depiction of the bond between King Pari and poet Kabilar implies that it is more than just a simple friendship. The song carries lyrical undertones that imply their close bond. While there isn’t an explicit depiction, one can speculate about the possibility.



In the rich tapestry of Hindu mythology, homosexuality invites us to delve deeper into the realm of symbolism and hidden meanings.

From the divine androgyny of Ardhanarishvara to the fluidity of gender these ancient tales offer glimpses into a world where love transcends societal norms and labels.

Homosexuality in Hindu mythology reminds us of the power of compassion and the unity of masculine and feminine energies.

As we unveil the layers of mythical symbolism, we uncover a profound message of acceptance, inclusion, and the celebration of diverse expressions of love.

These timeless stories invite us to embrace the beauty and power of homosexuality.


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